The purpose of this paper is to provide discussion on competing but overlapping theorization of accountability with primary focus given to downward accountability. In this paper the conception of downward accountability is extended via development of an ‘idealised’ downward accountability model. The paper is primarily theoretical and conceptual, extending the conception of downward accountability with its three idealised hybrids. The paper finds downward accountability may interact and overlap with other forms of accountability. Consequently, dependent on the key elements, mainly motivation and intention, the organization's accountability practices can ‘genuinely’ serve a broad range of stakeholders. The model developed in this paper is an early attempt in understanding and assessing the effectiveness of different practices of discharging downward accountability.
Keywords: Corporate accountability; downward accountability; downward functional accountability; downward communitarian accountability; downward social/ holistic accountability
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